USM is mechanical material removal process or an abrasive process used to erode holes or cavities on hard or brittle work piece by using shaped tools, high frequency mechanical motion and an abrasive slurry. USM offers a solution to the expanding need for machining brittle materials such as single crystals, glasses and polycrystalline ceramics, and increasing complex operations to provide intricate shapes and work piece profiles. It is therefore used extensively in machining hard and brittle materials that are difficult to machine by traditional manufacturing
processes. The hard particles in slurry are accelerated toward the surface of the work piece by a tool oscillating at a frequency up to 100 KHz - through repeated abrasions, the tool machines a cavity of a cross section identical to its own.
USM is primarily targeted for the machining of hard and brittle materials (dielectric or
conductive) such as boron carbide, ceramics, titanium carbides, rubies, quartz etc. USM is a
versatile machining process as far as properties of materials are concerned. This process is
able to effectively machine all materials whether they are electrically conductive or insulator.
For an effective cutting operation,
the following parameters need to be carefully considered: