An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle which runs by power that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels, fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include, but are not limited to, road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electric spacecraft.
Examples of Electric vehicles in the world:
Electric truck (Class 8, Tesla Semi) Rocklin, California
A Maglev train in Daejeon, South Korea
Electric trolleybus in São Paulo, Brazil
BYD K9, a battery electric bus with onboard LiFePO4 battery
Electric locomotive of the Shatabdi Express in India (see gallery of multiple units)
The electric, solar-powered aircraft, Solar Impulse 2 successfully circumnavigated the globe.
A Spanish made electric scooter, Torrot Muvi.
An e-Bike in Manhattan, New York
EVs run on electricity only. They are propelled by one or more electric motors powered by rechargeable battery packs. EVs have several advantages over conventional vehicles:
Energy efficient - EVs convert over 77% of the electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels. Conventional gasoline vehicles only convert about 12%–30% of the energy stored in gasoline to power at the wheels.
Environmentally friendly - EVs emit no tailpipe pollutants, although the power plant producing the electricity may emit them. Electricity from nuclear-, hydro-, solar-, or wind-powered plants causes no air pollutants.
Performance benefits - Electric motors provide quiet, smooth operation and stronger acceleration and require less maintenance than internal combustion engines (ICEs).
Reduced energy dependence - Electricity is a domestic energy source.
EVs have some drawbacks compared to gasoline vehicles:
Driving range - EVs have a shorter driving range than most conventional vehicles—although EV driving ranges are improving. Most EVs can travel more than 100 miles on a charge, and some can travel in excess of 200 or 300 miles depending on the model.
Recharge time - Fully recharging the battery pack can take 3 to 12 hours. Even a "fast charge" to 80% capacity can take 30 min.
Batteries for EVs are designed for extended life, and a study by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory suggest these batteries may last 12 to 15 years in moderate climates and 8 to 12 years in severe climates. However, these batteries are expensive, and replacing them may be costly if they fail.